Типы и структура вопросительных предложений в английском языке

 Types of the interrogative sentences .Типы вопросительных предложений

Существуют следующие типы вопросительных предложений: общие, специальные к подлежащему и к другим членам предложения, альтернативные и разделительные.

General

question

(Общий вопрос)

Special question

(Специальный вопрос)

Alternative

question

(Альтернативный вопрос)

Disjunctive

question

( Разделительный вопрос)

к подлежа­щему к другим членам, предложения
Is he here? Who is here? Where is he? Do you want tea or coffee? You don’t drink coffee, do you?
Shall I read? What is this? What do you have? Did you speak to them, or did he? Pete doesn’t work hard, does he?
May I come in? Who sees him? What do you want? Will you go there, or will your friend? She didn’t go there, did she?
Does she sing at all? Who saw him? When will you see him? Will he sing or dance? You will do that, won’t you?
Did he see you? Who can sing? Why can’t you do that? May I come in or may I not? You have read it, haven’t you?

The structure of general question (Структура общего вопроса)

  0

Вспомогательный/ модальный глагол — 1-я часть сказуемого

1

Подлежащее

2-я часть сказуемого 3

Второстепенные

члены

Глагол be Is (Am/Are/Was/Were) he reading your book?
Модальные

глаголы

Must/May (Might)/Can (Could)/Shall (Should) he read your book?
Вспомога­тельные глаголы will, have Have (Has/Had) you written this letter?
Will (Would) you write it?
Вспомога­тельный глагол do Do you read these books?
Does he read this newspaper?
Did she write this letter?

 

The structure of special question to the subject or to the attribute (Структура специального вопроса к подлежащему или к определению подлежащего)

Вопросительные слова Who/What вместо подлежащего Сказуемое и другие второстепенные члены повествовательного предложения
Who studies English?
knows the answer?
Whose children are playing there?
What is lying on the table?
What planes fly there?

 

The structure of special question to other parts of the sentence (Структура специального вопроса к другим членам предложения)

Question word (Вопросительное слово)

Where (где), When (когда), How (как), How much/many (сколько), How long (как долго/сколько времени), Why (почему), What (что — к дополнению)

General question (Общий вопрос)
Where did you get this book?
When will you go there?
How can we get it?
How many books have you read?
How much water did he drink?
In what way (How) do you want to celebrate this day?
How long (How much time) does it take you to get to the centre of the city?
Why do you want to see him?
What were you doing at 6 o’clock?
What language does he study?

 

The structure of alternative question (Структура альтернативного вопроса)

General question Conjunction (Союз) or Alternative (Альтернатива)
Have you got a car or (Have you got) a motorbike?
Does he know English or (Does he know) German?

 

The structure of disjunctive question (Структура разделительного вопроса)

Affirmative sentence Short general question
+
You work much, don’t you?
We are students, aren’t we?
NB! I am a teacher, aren’t I?
+
You don’t work much, do you?
We are not students, are we?
I am not a teacher, am I?

 

Answers to the questions (Ответы на вопросы)

General question (Общий вопрос) Short answer (Краткий ответ)
Is this a plane? Yes, it is. No, it is not (isn’t).
Have you written it? Yes, I have. No, I have not (haven’t).
Does he know the answer? Yes, he does. No, he does not (doesn’t).
Do you know the answer? Yes, I do. No, I do not (don’t).
Did he go there? Yes, he did. No, he did not (didn’t).
Will you ask him? Yes, I will. No, I will not (won’t).

 

Alternative question   Answer
(Альтернативный вопрос)   (Ответ)
Is this a short story or a novel? It is a short story.
Will you go there or will your friend? My friend will.
Do you want tea or coffee? Tea, please.

 

Disjunctive question You agree You disagree
(Разделительный вопрос) (Вы согласны) (Вы не согласны)
Your friend speaks English, doesn’t he? Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t.
You have finished your work, haven’t you? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t.
Your friend doesn’t speak English, does he? No, he doesn’t. Yes, he does.
You haven’t finished your work, have you? No, I haven’t. Yes, I have.

 

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